Cluster Computing – Hardware Planning

Goal: Let’s build a 112-core 1.2GHz A53 cluster with 56GB of DDR3 RAM and 292GB of high-availability distributed file storage, all using at most 200W of power.

Let’s motivate taking up parallel computing and putting in the research time, taking the Coursera and Udemy courses, learning new cluster compute paradigms and frameworks, assembling a physical hardware machine, and yeah, spending thousands of dollars on the hardware with a fun little problem:

1. Motivation: All-Pairs Financial Time Series Correlations

Say we have historic intraday data for about 50,000 securities and indexes. How long will it take to compute some correlations between all pairs of symbols? Can we speed this up? The number of pairs to compute is:

50,000 choose 2 = 1,249,975,000 pairs

On a given machine using napkin math assume each pair takes 1ms to compute. Then it would take

1,249,975,000 * 0.001s = 1,249,975s = 347.2hr = 14.5d

two weeks and a morning to calculate the correlations between all unique symbol pairs. It’s by far more doable than brute-forcing a SHA256 collision (forget about it), but the markets will have well moved on by then. Can we do better?

Let’s scale the problem horizontally: add more processors.

3D CAD rendering of the proposed compute cluster
3D CAD rendering of the proposed compute cluster

Say we have 27 identical machines and processors available1 and there is no network latency or map/reduce lag time, then in an ideal setup we can reduce the job time to

14.5d / 27 = 0.55d

just half a day. That’s much better than two weeks.

We can do better by not performing all-pairs on all pairs. We could ignore OTC/Pinx stocks and most NASDAQI indexes (see this article). Then we have on the order of 20,000-choose-2 pairs which is about 200 million pairs, which would take 2.3 days on one machine, or less than a couple hours on our ideal cluster. Now we’re talking. Cluster computing makes sense so far.

Cluster computing with 27 processors can reduce the job time from a couple weeks to half a day, to even just a couple hours with optimizations.

2. Infrastructure: AWS/Google Cloud or Physical Hardware?

I was at the Google Cloud OnBoard convention in Vancouver in September this year2 and in an effort to asses cost I stood up and asked a question: Would it be better to do, say, crypto mining using Google Cloud resources, or on an equivalent on-prem hardware setup? There were five GCEs (Google Cloud Engineers) on the stage answering questions at the time, and they paused, looked at each other, then lightly chuckled. The response was that cloud compute was not meant for flat-out processing, but that they would gladly take payment.

Google Cloud Pricing

How expensive would a comparable 28-CPU rig cost per month with Google?

Google Cloud compute pricing calculator
Google Cloud compute pricing calculator

Using the Google Cloud pricing calculator3, I tried a few configurations:

InstancesCoresRAMPreemptibleLocal SSDUsageRegionMonthly Cost
2844 GB4x3×375 GB24×7IowaUSD 4,673.09
2848 GBx3×375 GB24×7IowaUSD 4,927.54
11211 GB5x3×375 GB24×7IowaUSD 8,873.13
196696 GB7x3×375 GB24×7IowaUSD 1,935.49
25656 GB8x3×375 GB24×7IowaUSD 2,333.07
25656 GB8v0 GB24×7IowaUSD 647.54 (+191.25)*
256112 GBv0 GB24×7IowaUSD 724.39 (+191.25)*

*SSD Provisioned Space of 1,125 GB (=3×375 GB) will cost USD 191.25 per month9

Google does not allow a 2:1 cores-to-RAM configuration, so I used a 1:1 ratio in the base calculations. From the last two pricing calculations, it looks like 56 GB of RAM is about $86/mo over two instances.

$734 – $648 = $86 for double the total RAM, so
$648 – $86 = $562 for half the total RAM

On paper we reach a resource-comparable $753 per month ($648 – $86 + $191). Let’s take into account the vCPUs are great and are twice as fast as the CPUs we will be using, and our storage will not be SSD, so let’s use a good will factor of 0.4 to come to a Google cloud cost estimate:

$753/mo * 0.4 = USD $301 per month (resource equivalent)

However, if we really are trying to be consistent with the hardware configuration (local storage, not preemptible, 28 CPUs, etc), then we have to use the first calculation and adjust the cost of RAM using the second pricing calculation as such:

$4,928 – $4,673 = $255 for double the total RAM, so
$4,673 – $255 = $4,418 for half the total RAM

Let’s take into account the same good will factor of 0.4 to come to a Google cloud cost estimate:

$4,418 * 0.4 = USD $1,767 per month (hardware equivalent)

The same hardware we are building on-prem as we can spec out on Google Cloud will equivalently cost between $301 and $1,767 USD per month. The lowest we can pay, however, is USD $753 per month.

Amazon AWS Cloud Pricing

How expensive would a comparable 28-CPU rig cost per month with Amazon?

Amazon AWS cloud compute pricing
Amazon AWS cloud compute pricing

As for AWS, for comparable resources I selected 112×1-core CPUs with 0.5 GB RAM each for the 112-cores and 56 GB RAM, as well as 1125 GB of basic S3 storage. I also selected 56×2-core CPUs with 1 GB RAM each. It is impossible to customize the instances, but to compare the cluster hardware more closely, I also selected 28×4-core CPUs with 16 GB RAM each – too much RAM, I know. Because the option was so prominent, I also selected a one-year reserve price so see how that affects monthly costs. Here are the results:

InstancesCoresRAMS3UsageRegionReservedMonthly Cost
11210.5 GB1125 GB24×7OhioxUSD 476.00 (+25.88)*
5621 GB1125 GB24×7OhioxUSD 426.72 (+25.88)*
28416 GB1125 GB24×7OhioxUSD 3,804.08 (+25.88)*
11210.5 GB1125 GB24×7OhiovUSD 294.34 (+25.88)*
5621 GB1125 GB24×7OhiovUSD 265.72 (+25.88)*
28416 GB1125 GB24×7OhiovUSD 2,350.60 (+25.88)*

*1125 GB of S3 storage costs $25.88/mo

Let’s use the goodwill factor again, then the AWS compute estimate becomes:

$453 * 0.4 = USD $181 per month (resource equivalent), or
$292 * 0.4 = USD $117 per month (resource equivalent, reserved)

The same hardware we are building on-prem as we can spec out on Amazon AWS Cloud will equivalently cost between $117 and $181 USD per month. The lowest we can pay, however, is about USD $292 per month.

Conclusion: Physical Hardware is More Cost-Effective

On paper, a performance-adjusted 112-core cluster in the cloud is worth between $117 and $301 USD per month, and will cost between $292 and $753 USD per month. But of course this not the end of the story. This looks good on paper, but what can you do with a cloud node that only has 1 GB of RAM, or even just 0.5 GB of RAM? That’s akin to using networked Raspberry Pi Zeros in the cloud. Remember, the hardware I’m building uses 2 GB of DDR3 RAM per node. Also, the vCPUs are still shared with other tenants. Finally, network costs were not included at all. I’ve omitted hundreds of gigabytes per month of I/O traffic that will drive the costs highers.

It is much better economic value to build a hardware compute cluster and run it on-prem than to use equivalent cloud infrastructure.

3. Single-Board (SoC) Computer Design Considerations

Going in I have no idea what cluster compute framework or even languages I will use, but they will either be R or Java, and some kind of Hadoop or Apache Spark stack. I just want to build a box with a lot of wires and LAN cables, and blinking lights for the win. Just kidding. There are important design considerations. For the all-pairs problem, we’re going to need manpower over horsepower, and that means more cores with enough RAM available per core. Analyzing time series data is not so processor intensive, but there are thousands of stock symbols to analyze in parallel. Which processor (and SBC or SoC10) to use? Let’s compare.

Here is a condensed table from my larger spreadsheet. PPC is “Price per Core”, and PPCxR is “Price per Core-times-RAM”. All RAM is (LP)DDR311, and all boards have a microSD slot and true Gigabit Ethernet capability12. Prices in USD.

SOPINECortex A5342GB$30$7.50$3.75
PINE64-LTSCortex A5342GB$32$8.00$4.00
ORDOID XU4Exynos554282GB$62$7.75$3.88
UDOO X86 UltraN3710+Quark SE48GB32GB$267$66.75$8.34
UP CoreAtom x5-z835044GB32GB$149$37.25$9.32

Out of all these performant single-board computers, the SOPINE module has the lowest price per core, and second lowest price per core-GB-RAM. The next closest is the ODROID XU4, but with 8 cores sharing 2GB of RAM, there is going to be more pagefile swapping which we must avoid at all costs. That is another reason why the 16-core Parallella board is out (it is suited for low-memory tasks like parallel password guessing). Some boards have internal eMMC storage, which is nice, but they can not be upgraded, so in a couple years we will run out of storage (more on that later).

SOPINE A64 compute module specs by Pine64
SOPINE A64 compute module specs by Pine64
Actual SOPINE A64 compute module
Actual SOPINE A64 compute module
The SOPINE A64 is a SODIMM-DDR3 form factor compute module by Pine64. It has just the Allwinner Cortex A53 1.2GHz quad-core 64-bit ARM processor (with Mali400 MP2 GPU), 2GB of LPDDR3 RAM, SPI Flash, a microSD slot and a MALI2 GPU. The manufacturer has long-term support for these modules until 2022. This module lends itself to space savings as there are no USB or HDMI connectors.
We’ll be powering the compute cluster with twenty-eight SOPINE A64 compute modules.

4. Storage Design Considerations

Now that we are moving forward the SOPINE A64 modules, let’s decide on how to architect our distributed storage. The SOPINE modules only have a microSD card slot, so we’re going to need microSD cards. That was easy. Kidding. At this time Class 10 are the best, so we are going to use Class 10 cards which means they are rated for 10MB/s write speed, and higher read speeds. It’s important to have high read speeds because 10MB/s is still pretty slow compared to SSD drives, or even mechanical drives, or even the gigabit bandwidth (GbE) of 125MB/s.

MicroSD card class chart with minimum sequential write speeds
MicroSD card class chart with minimum sequential write speeds
Class 10 microSD card sample performance
Class 10 microSD card sample performance

Why not have all the stock data on an SSD and shuttle it to the compute modules through the GbE network? With 28 modules (more on this number in a moment), and a NAS network best-bandwidth of 125MB/s, each module can access only 4.46MB/s. That’s less than half the read speed of the Class 10 microSD cards. Also, with the SSD approach, we’d have to store the stock data in memory, precious, precious memory. Besides, at this time 32GB Class 10 U1 microSD cards are reasonably priced, and they are easy to replace when they fail (more on redundancy soon).

We’ll be using Class 10 (minimum 10MB/s sequential write, >10MB/s sequential read) U1 microSD cards in each of our SOPINE compute modules.

5. Number of Processors

Pine64 makes a cluster board that holds 7 SOPINE modules and has on-board power management and an 8-port Gigabit Realtek switch chip with a 16 gigabit backplane. It also provides USB 2.0 ports and header pins beside each module. Importantly, the cluster board minimizes the use of LAN cables that would otherwise be needed to network 28 SBCs.

Actual development SOPINE A64 clusterboard
Actual development SOPINE A64 clusterboard
Serial connection and USB testing of the clusterboard
Serial connection and USB testing of the clusterboard

Then, let’s go nuts and use four cluster boards with seven SOPINE modules each, or 28 compute modules for a total of 56 GB of RAM and 112 cores! Oh yeah. There is a sense of pride going past 100 cores, don’t you think? Actually, with four boards we’d only need a 5-port switch (GbE with 10Gb/s backplane capacity) to network them, plus they stack nicely into a cubic volume. Additionally, using four boards is the sweet spot with respect to power utilization (more on that below).

We’ll be building a 112-core compute cluster with 56GB of DDR3 RAM with four SOPINE cluster boards and twenty-eight SOPINE compute modules.

6. Distributed Storage Capacity

How well can we do with, say, twenty-eight 32GB microSD cards? You’d be forgiven for thinking you’d have 896GB system capacity. You’d really have a third of that, or about 300 GB, which is more like 292 GiB, because HDFS13 has a default replication factor of 3. That’s why the microSD cards can be replaced easily when they eventually wear out without downtime or loss of data.

Is 292 GB sufficient? At the time of this article my store of securities data is 90GB uncompressed and it is growing by 72GB per year. That gives us a couple years to see if the price of storage drops enough to warrant an upgrade. Nice.

Why not 64GB cards? At this time there is a generous price break for 32GB cards from several manufacturers, probably because photo-happy smartphone users (such as myself) require more storage than 32GB, so 64GB cards still have a lot of demand and are priced as such.

32 GB microSD cards in bulk for distributed storage
32 GB microSD cards in bulk for distributed storage
The cluster will boast an effective high-availability storage of 292GiB using twenty-eight 32GB Class-10 microSD cards.

7. Power Supply Considerations

I’m told each SOPINE module may use up to 6W at peak utilization. At 5V, 6W is 1.2A. Then 1.2A times 7 modules is 8.4A per cluster board. With four cluster boards that is 33.6A. When the 5-port switch and the 4×8-port switch chips are included, that could be up around 40A! There are 200W power supplies that can handle this load. But, adding a fifth board would require a new switch, and much bigger power supply (the next biggest power supply up is typically 350W). Power wise, four cluster boards is the sweet spot.

 Actual 200W 5V power supply
Actual 200W 5V power supply
We will be using a 200W, 5V power supply to power the twenty-eight SOPINE compute modules and internal networking.

8. Networking Design Considerations

Each cluster board has a RTL8370N-powered 8-port Gigabit network switch with 16Gb/s backplane capacity. This means each SOPINE has access to the full 1000Mb/s wire speed when communicating with a neighboring SOPINE. If all seven modules try to share the 8th port (intermediate uplink connection), however, then each is limited to

1000Mb/s / 8b/B = 125MB/s
125MB/s / 7 = 17.86MB/s each < ~20MB/s (sequential microSD read speed)

Now, if there are four cluster boards, then there is another Gigabit switch with enough backplane capacity to allow wire speeds again14. With twenty-eight modules sharing the primary uplink, the math becomes:

125MB/s / 28 = 4.46MB/s each ≪ ~20MB/s (sequential microSD read speed)

This is a better explanation of why we are not using a NAS SSD to supply data to each compute module: it would be far too slow. Granted, 20MB/s sequential read speed is not great, but with optimizations such as caching the most frequently used stock symbols we should be able to reduce the IO penalty.

This is where a distributed file system like Hadoop HDFS + Apache Spark shines: compute operations are sent to the data, not the other way around.

Actual 5-port Gigabit switch with 10Gbps backplane
Actual 5-port Gigabit switch with 10Gbps backplane

Let’s be sure to use Cat6 or Cat6a STP15 cable (rated for 10Gbps) to connect the cluster boards to the network switch. Just do not use Cat5 cable (rated for only 100Mbps). Cat5e cable is rated for 1Gbps, so it should theoretically be okay. I’ll actually be using Cat6 STP cable.

Each cluster board can communicate with a neighboring cluster board at Gigabit speeds, and each SOPINE module can also communicate with a neighboring SOPINE module at Gigabit speeds. When all distributed storage is “drained” for backup, the speed will again be Gigabit speeds.

9. Cooling Considerations

These compute modules are going to get hot! Right away we are going to need passive heatsinks. I’ve researched and settled on low-profile aluminum-oxide ceramic heatsinks because they outperform metal heatsinks due to their increased surface area due to micro pits. They need to be low profile because I will need access to the header pins beside the SOPINEs.

Aluminum-oxide ceramic heatsinks for the SOPINES
Aluminum-oxide ceramic heatsinks for the SOPINES

The SOPINE modules will need to be actively cooled as well. They get hot, up to 70 degrees I’ve found, so decent airflow is required.

Checking SOPINE temperature with an infrared thermometer
Checking SOPINE temperature with an infrared thermometer

I want this cluster to be ninja quiet, so after a lot of research into fans, I settled on ultra-quiet Arctic Air fans. They are 12V PWM fans, so a boost converter will be needed to increase the voltage from the PSU from 5V to 12V. The current should be low, less than 2 amps, so that is why I chose to boost the fan voltage up to 12V, not buck the clusterboard voltage down to 5V from a 12V power supply. A PWM fan controller is a nice touch too.

Prototype 12V PWM fans with boost converter and PWM controller
Prototype 12V PWM fans with boost converter and PWM controller
Arctic Air PWM fans
Arctic Air PWM fans

10. Next Steps

The biggest design considerations have been settled, so the plan now is to physically design and build this beautiful, compact, and performant compute cluster. As a preview of things to come, the final enclosure is estimated to occupy a volume of only 24cm x 24cm x 24cm which you can hold in your open palm. For the next article, I will delve into performance measurements of the SOPINE A64 modules with the Phoronix Test Suite, as well as test the microSD cards, power supply, boost converter(s), PWM controllers, SOPINE thermal properties, and power consumption.


  1. I’m using twenty-seven as an example because I’m actually building a 28-processor cluster but one will be a namenode.
  4. The minimum RAM for a 4-core instance is a strange 3.6 GB
  5. The minimum RAM for a 1-core instance is a strange 0.9 GB
  6. 96 is the maximum allowed cores on a custom instance
  7. The minimum RAM for a 96-core instance is a strange 86.4 GB
  8. The minimum RAM for a 56-core instance is a strange 50.4 GB
  9. We cannot use local SSD _and_ premptible instances because we will lose data
  10. SoC means System on a Chip
  11. Raspberry Pi 3B+ still uses DDR2 RAM
  12. Excluded boards may state Gigabit Ethernet, but will share the slow USB 2.0 bus. Another reason why Raspberry Pis were excluded.
  13. Hadoop Distributed File System
  14. A 10Gbs switch could be used, but chances are we don’t have a 10Gbs router or NIC card in our lab machines, plus Hadoop and Spark makes this unnecessary.
  15. STP is properly shielded cable, not to be confused with UTP cable which is not shielded